Generations of computer:-
Our article today, Generation of Computer. In this article, we will discuss all generations of the computer from the first to the sixth generation with its features and try to cover all the main points. So That they do not need to search on someone else in the context of this article. Read the entire article and give your valuable feedback.
So, the first question that arises is “How many generations of computers are there?”
There is a total of six generations of computers which are given below:
1.First-generation (1951 to 1958)
These computers used vacuum tube. So they were extremely large, heavy equipment and generated a lot of heat.
The First Generation begins with the commercial installation of UNIVAC built by Eckert and Mauchly. The UNIVAC processor weighed 30 tons and required the full space of a 20 by 40-foot room. The first generation of computers used bulbs to process information.
Programming was done through machine language. The memories were built with thin tubes of liquid mercury and magnetic drums. The operators entered the data and programs in special code by means of punch cards. Internal storage was achieved with a rapidly rotating drum, on which a read/write device placed magnetic marks.
The age of computers has arrived and the old computer that we had in our home has been replaced by a much more powerful computer. The first generation of computers came with a lot of features but they could not compete with the PCs that were more powerful and had more applications. These PC’s do not have any DVDs or CDs and you will have to buy a memory stick with the software to use them. The other problem was that if your PC crashed, it might take several weeks before you could get a new one from the
Example of First Generation computer:-
The main features of the first generation are:
- Uses vacuum tube technology in computers.
- The memories were built with thin tubes of liquid mercury and magnetic drums
- first-generation computers very expensive to buy.
- It is causing too much heat and noise.
- It has a very slow input/output device
- Support machine language only.
- It has a large size.
- AC you need for cooling.
- It is very difficult for portable.
- It consumes a lot of electricity
2.Second Generation (1959-1964)
The Limited Compatibility Transistor replaces the vacuum valve used in the first generation. Second-generation computers will be faster, smaller, and with fewer ventilation needs. These computers also used networks of magnetic cores instead of rotating drums for primary storage. These cores contained small rings of magnetic material, linked together, in which data and instructions could be stored.
Computer programs also improved. COBOL developed during the 1st generation was already commercially available. Programs written for one computer could be transferred to another with minimal effort. Writing a program no longer required a full understanding of computer hardware.
The second generation of computers started out to be more user-friendly and people were more likely to take advantage of them as opposed to the first generation of computers which were not easy to operate. The problems with the computer, however, did not end. The more user-friendly computers had more difficult to understand user interfaces that made it harder for the average person to use the computers
Example of Second Generation computer:-
- IBM 1620
- IBM 7094
- CDC 1604
- CDC 3600
- UNIVAC 1108
The main features of Second Generation are:
- Second-generation computer made of transistors.
- It is smaller in size than first-generation computers.
- The second-generation computer generates less heat than first-generation computers.
- It consumed less power than first-generation computers.
- It is faster than the first-generation computers.
- The second-generation computer is very reliable compared to the first generation of computers.
- It’s still too expensive to buy.
- It also needs air conditioning to cool down.
- Supports machine and assembly languages.
3.Third Generation Computers (1964-1971)
Integrated Circuits, Compatibility with Major Equipment, Multiprogramming, Minicomputer.
Third-generation computers emerged with the development of integrated circuits (silicon pads) in which thousands of electronic components are placed, in a miniature integration. Computers again became smaller, faster, gave off less heat, and were more energy efficient.
Before the advent of integrated circuits, computers were designed for mathematical or business applications, but not for both. Integrated circuits allowed computer manufacturers to increase program flexibility and standardize their models.
The IBM 360, one of the first commercial computers that used integrated circuits, could perform both numerical analysis and file management or processing. Customers could scale their 360 systems to larger IBM models and could still run their current programs. Computers worked at such speed that they provided the ability to run more than one program simultaneously (multiprogramming).
The third generation of computers also improved the user interface, the first two generations did not but the third generation did but that is another story.
Example of Third Generation computer:-
- IBM-360 series
- Honeywell-6000 series
- PDP(Personal Data Processor)
The main features of the Third Generation are:
- The third generation computer used IC.
- It is more reliable compared to the second generation computer.
- The third generation computer has a smaller size compared to a second-generation computer.
- It is to generate less heat compared to the second generation computer
- it is faster compared to the second generation computer.
- The third generation computer required less maintenance.
- Also still expensive
- The third generation also required A.C to cool.
- It consumed less electricity compared to the second generation computer.
- Third-generation computers support high-level language.
4.Fourth-generation (1971 to 1981)
Microprocessor, Memory chips, Microminiaturization
Two improvements in computer technology mark the beginning of the fourth generation: the replacement of memories with magnetic cores, with those of silicon chips and the placement of many more components in a Chip: product of the micro miniaturization of electronic circuits. The small size of the chip microprocessor made it possible to create personal computers (PCs)
In 1971, Intel Corporation, which was a small semiconductor manufacturer located in Silicon Valley, introduced the first microprocessor or 4-bit chip, which contained approximately 250 transistors in a space of approximately 4 x 5 mm. This first microprocessor, shown in Figure 1.14, was baptized as 4004.
Silicon Valley (Silicon Valley) was an agricultural region south of the San Francisco Bay, which due to its large silicon production, from 1960 becomes a fully industrialized area where a large number of semiconductor manufacturing companies and microprocessors It is currently known worldwide as the most important region for computer-related industries: program creation and component manufacturing.
Currently, a huge number of microcomputer or personal computer manufacturers have emerged, who using different structures or architectures literally fight for the computer market, which has grown so much that it is one of the largest in the world; especially, since 1990, when surprising advances are made on the Internet.
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This generation of computers was characterized by great technological advances made in a very short time. In 1977 the first microcomputers appear, among which the most famous were those manufactured by Apple Computer, Radio Shack and Commodore Busíness Machines. IBM joins the microcomputer market with its Personal Computer (figure 1.15), where they have been synonymous with the PC name, and most importantly; A standardized operating system, the MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System), is included.
The fourth generation of computers came about when Apple released the Macintosh. The first thing the Mac had been a hard drive. This was revolutionary in that the only thing the computer would need to hold onto is a copy of your files. The ease of using the computer and the ease of using the operating system created a revolution for computers.
Example of Fourth Generation computer:-
- STAR 1000
- DEC 10
- PDP 11
- CRAY-1(Super Computer)
- CRAY-X-MP(Super Computer)
The main features of the Fourth Generation are:
- VLSI technology used in fourth generation computers.
- It is much cheaper than the previous generation of computers.
- It is introduced the first microprocessor or 4-bit chip in the fourth generation.
- Fourth-generation computers are portable and reliable.
- It has pipe processing.
- No more AC Requirements.
- Introduce the concept of the internet.
- There is a great development in the field of networks.
- It is small in size as compared to the third generation computer.
- Computers became easily available to people.
5.Fifth-generation and artificial intelligence (1982-1989)
It is becoming increasingly difficult to identify computer generations because the great advances and new discoveries no longer surprise us as they happened in the middle of the 20th century. There are those who consider that the fourth and fifth-generation have ended, and place them between the years 1971-1984 the fourth, and between 1984-1990 the fifth. They believe that the sixth generation is in development from 1990 to date.
Keeping track of technological events in computing and computing, we can point out some dates and characteristics of what could be the fifth generation of computers.
Based on the great technological events in the field of microelectronics and computing (software) such as CADI CAM, CAE, CASE, artificial intelligence, expert systems, neural networks, chaos theory, genetic algorithms, optical fibers, telecommunications, etc., The foundations of what can be known as the fifth generation of computers were established in the 1980s.
It is necessary to mention two great technological advances, which serve as a parameter for the beginning of said generation: the creation in 1982 of the first supercomputer with parallel process capability, designed by Seymour Cray, who had already experimented with supercomputers since 1968, and which founded 1976 Cray Research Inc .; and the announcement by the Japanese government of the “fifth generation” project, which was established in the agreement with six of the largest Japanese computer companies, should end in 1992.
The parallel process is one that is carried out on computers that have the ability to work simultaneously with several microprocessors. Although in theory, the work with several microprocessors should be much faster, it is necessary to carry out special programming that allows assigning different tasks of the same process to the various microprocessors involved.
The memory must also be adapted so that it can meet the requirements of the processors at the same time. To solve this problem, shared memory modules had to be designed capable of allocating cache areas for each processor.
According to this project, to which the most technologically advanced countries joined in order not to fall behind Japan, the main feature would be the application of artificial intelligence (Al, Artificial Intelligence). The computers of this generation contain a large number of microprocessors working in parallel and can recognize voices and images. They also have the ability to communicate with natural language and they will acquire the ability to make decisions based on processes of learning grounded in expert systems and artificial intelligence.
The storage of information is done in optical magneto devices with tens of Gigabytes capacities; set the DVD (Digital Versatile Disk or Digital videodisk) as a standard for storing video and sound; The data storage capacity grows exponentially making it possible to store more information in one of these units, than all that was in the Library of Alexandria. The components of today’s microprocessors use high and ultra-integration technologies, called VLSI (Very Large Sca / e Integration) and ULSI (Ultra Long Scale Integration).
However, regardless of these “miracles” of modern technology, the gap is not distinguished where the fifth ends and the sixth generation begins. Personally, we have not seen the full realization of what was stated in the Japanese project due to the perhaps momentary failure of artificial intelligence.
The only forecast that has been carried out without interruption during this generation is connectivity between computers, that from 1994, with the advent of a network Internet and the World Wide Web, has become vital in large, medium and small businesses and, among private users of computers.
The main purpose of Artificial Intelligence
The purpose of Artificial Intelligence is to equip Computers with “Human Intelligence” and the ability to reason to find solutions. Another fundamental factor of the design, the ability of the computer to recognize patterns and sequences of processing that it has previously encountered, (Heuristic programming) that allows the Computer to remember previous results and include them in the processing, in essence, the Computer will learn from Your own experiences will use your original Data to obtain the answer through reasoning and will keep those results for further processing and decision-making tasks.
6.Sixth generation (1990 to till date)
Since the sixth generation of computers is supposedly underway since the early 1990s, we must at least outline the characteristics that computers of this generation should have. Mention is also made of some of the technological advances of the last decade of the 20th century and what is expected in the 21st century.
Computers of this generation have combined Parallel / Vector architectures, with hundreds of vector microprocessors working at the same time; computers capable of performing more than one million million floating-point arithmetic operations per second (teraflops) have been created; World Area Networks (WAN) will continue to grow exorbitantly using media through optical fibers and satellites, with impressive bandwidths. The technologies of this generation have already been developed or are in that process. Some of them are distributed intelligence / artificial; Chaos theory, fuzzy systems, holography, optical transistors, etc.
Example of Sixth Generation computer:-
The main features of the Sixth Generation are:
- The Sixth generation used ULSI technology.
- Development of true artificial intelligence in this generation.
- Computers capable of performing more than one million million floating-point arithmetic operations per second
- Development of natural language processing.
- Progress in parallel/Vector processing architectures.
- Advances in Superconductor Technology
- More user-friendly interface with multimedia functions.
- Availability of very powerful and compact computers at affordable prices.
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