What is Hantavirus? And its Preventions and Control


What is Hantavirus? What Are Symptoms Of HantaVirus?

In this article, I will give you some of the basics of HANTAVIRUS and what is symptoms of hantavirus. Although most viruses cause flu-like symptoms and can be very difficult to determine, the most important distinction between a virus and the flu is the way it affects the body.

Viruses are much more dangerous than flu and other viral infections. Unlike flu which only affects one or two organs and which most likely will disappear within a few days, a virus attacks the entire body and can not be easily cured. And because it targets the entire body, it can trigger several diseases simultaneously. It can also transmit from one person to another without any symptoms.


When you think of HANTAVIRUS and what is symptoms of hantavirus, you should first understand that the virus is found naturally in our bodies. There are thousands of different types of viruses, but all viruses affect the same organs – the Respiratory system. Thus, most people who have the flu will have a mild case of Hantavirus and all you need to do is take care of your Respiratory system, Eat nutritious foods and maintain a healthy immune system.

The only real difference between a virus and the flu is the way it infects the body. Some of the most common virus infections have symptoms that are very similar to flu; however, if you have hantavirus you will definitely be able to recognize the symptoms.

What is Hantavirus

The hantavirus is a severe acute viral illness caused by the Hantavirus. Field mice (mainly longtails) transmit it to people, eliminating the virus in saliva, feces, and urine.

It is a genus that groups several RNA viruses, which are transmitted by infected rodents (zoonoses).

In humans, they generally produce two types of conditions: one type of viral hemorrhagic fever, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (FHSR); or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (SPHV), a very serious lung condition.

Hantaviruses are a group that belongs to the Bunyaviridae family, group C. It is considered a biosecurity risk virus No. 4.

The name of the genus Hantavirus comes from the Hantan River, north of the cities of Dongducheon and Paju, near which the prototypical member – the Hantaan Virus – was originally isolated. Outbreaks of what was thought to be FHSR were reported in Europe and Asia as early as the 1930s. But it was in 1978 when the Hantaan virus was isolated, and it was confirmed that some rodents served as a reservoir for the viruses that caused FHSR. The Seoul, Dobrava and Puumala viruses are very similar to Hantaan, and are widely distributed throughout the Eurasian territory and also cause FHSR.

Hantavirus can be divided into two types:

It can be divided into two types causing 1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), and the other causing 2.Hantavirus renal syndrome hemorrhagic fever (HFRS). The former is common in China, the United States, and cases have been detected in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Germany.

Hantavirus includes Hantavirus (HTNV), which causes Hemorrhagic fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), Seoul virus (SEOV), Pumara virus (PUUV) and Dobrava virus (Dobrava virus (DOBV), Unknown virus (Sin Nombre virus (SNV)), New York virus (NYV), Black Creek Canal Virus (BCCNV) that causes Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), Cow Bow Lake virus (Bayou virus, BAYV), Andean virus (Andes virus, ANV) and its relationship with human diseases. It is unclear a group of viruses, such as Prospect Hill virus (Prospect, Hill virus, PHV), Thai virus (Thailand virus, THAIV), Tula virus (Tula virus, TULV), Sotopalaya virus (Thottapalayam virus (TPMV)), Khabarovsk virus (KBRV), El Morro Canyon Virus (ELMCV), Rio Segundo virus (RSV), Island landscape virus ( Isla vista virus, ISLAV), Muleshoe virus (MULEV), Lake Birdland virus (BLLLV), Mamore virus (RMV), Topografov virus (TOPV), etc.

How is it transmitted?

The hosts of this virus are rodents. The Colilargo is one of them, but there are several different species depending on the area. The mouse does not suffer from the virus, it only transmits it through faecal matter or urine that dries, flies and breathes in the air.

The main forms of transmission are:

  • By inhalation: It is the most frequent cause. When we breathe in open or closed places (sheds, orchards, grasslands) that are contaminated.
  • Direct contact: By touching infected live or dead rodents, or the faeces or urine of these rodents
  • For bites: By being bitten by infected rodents.
  • By interhuman route: it can be transmitted between people through close contact with an infected person during the first days of symptoms, through the airway.

What are the symptoms of Hantavirus?

What are the symptoms of hantavirus lung syndrome?

Condition analysis: Hantavirus can cause people to develop Hantavirus lung syndrome. Its incubation period is 9 to 33 days, with an average of 14 to 17 days. The initial symptoms are very similar to the Flu, Manifested as chills, Fever, Myalgia, Headache, Fatigue, etc., and the body temperature can reach 38-40 ° C; it may also be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and other gastrointestinal symptoms; Show conjunctival hyperemia, bleeding spots or bleeding spots on the skin and mucous membrane.

Initial symptoms are flu-like and include:

  • Fever
  • Muscle pains
  • Abdominal pain

The most characteristic symptom is shortness of breath, similar to pneumonia. The peculiarity of Hantavirus in the American region is that it produces respiratory failure, which can lead to death. It is a cardiopulmonary syndrome.

What are the main risk groups?

They are the same as for other respiratory diseases:

  • Over 60 years
  • Pregnant
  • Children under 2 years old
  • Those who have a previous respiratory disease

How can it be prevented?

  • Avoid living with rodents and contact with their secretions.
  • Prevent rodents from entering or nesting in homes.
  • Plug holes in doors, walls, and pipes.
  • Clean (floors, walls, doors, tables, drawers, and cabinets) with one part of bleach every nine times of water (leave 30 minutes and then rinse). Dampen the floor before sweeping to avoid raising dust.
  • Place orchards and firewood more than 30 meters from the houses, cut grass and weeds up to a radius of 30 meters around the home.
  • Ventilate at least 30 minutes before entering closed places (houses, sheds). Cover your mouth and nose with an N95 chinstrap before entering.
  • When camping does away from brush and rubbish, do not sleep directly on the ground and consume clean water.
  • If a live rodent is found: do not touch it and consult the municipality.
  • If a dead rodent is found: spray it with bleach along with anything that may have been in contact and wait a minimum of 30 minutes. Then collect it using gloves and bury it more than 30 cm deep or burn it.
  • People with symptoms of the disease should go to a health facility for a consultation quickly and avoid close contact with other people.

How to control Hantavirus:-

Outbreaks are associated with seasonal climatic changes, changes in rodent population dynamics. Human interventions such as the alteration of ecosystems increasing the contact between rodents and humans.

The virus is susceptible to most household disinfectants and detergents. It has lability to UV radiation that causes its rapid inactivation in ventilated environments with exposure to the sun. The virus is inactive at temperatures above 37ºC, while it remains stable up to 4ºC for 12 hours. It is also inactivated in conditions of extreme pH and with high salt concentrations.

Control of the rodent population: Prevent the access of rodents to the home (closure of cracks and holes, elimination of access to food, use of traps). Care in cleaning closed places with evidence of the presence of rodents, avoid raising dust. Ventilate closed areas widely, and exposed areas should be sprayed with general-purpose disinfectants for homes or simply with sodium hypochlorite, avoiding at all times the aerosolization of particles and dust deposited on the ground and in the environment. Special care should be taken in the start-up of air conditioning devices whose filters or ducts may have had contact with contaminated dust, rodents or excreta thereof and the fans.

Hantavirus does not transmit through Human to Human

The epidemic of hemorrhagic fever is widespread, the mortality rate is high, and the harm is great. It is mainly transmitted by mice. It may be caused by contact with rats or eating food they have touched, breathing air contaminated by mouse faeces, but no infection will occur between people.

In addition, hemorrhagic fever is very similar to a cold in the first three days. Early symptoms are mainly fever, headache, low back pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, etc. It is easily confused with a cold, causing misdiagnosis and delaying the illness. A typical performance will not appear until three days later, mainly in “three pains” and “three reds”. “The” three pains “are headache, low back pain, orbital pain. The” three reds “are red eyes, red face, red neck, and neck. It is different from the common cold. The common cold is that the fever is mild, and the hemorrhagic fever is severe. ”

How is the treatment?

There is no specific treatment. Those patients with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome should be attended in hospital establishments.

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Final Word:-

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About Vivek Choudhary 70 Articles
I am Content Writer/Blogger who loves researching new stuff, playing games, travelling, and music. You can find me on Facebook, Twitter, and Linkedin.

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